Glossary beginning with C

Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.


Canada’s Points-Based Entry System search for term

Canada had a policy that allowed people who met certain conditions – such as having gone to university or having professional work experience – to legally move to the country, even if they did not already have an offer of work. This is based on the number of points they are awarded on the basis of fulfilling these conditions.

Care in the Community search for term

A policy introduced in the 1980s which aimed to treat and care for people with physical or mental disabilities in their homes, or in small institutions, rather than large institutions separate from the rest of the community.

Casual Worker search for term

A worker who is not part of an organisation’s permanent staff, but who may only be employed for occasional or seasonal work. Casual workers are not entitled to all of the same employment rights as other workers.

Census search for term

The census is a government survey of everybody living in the UK. It is normally carried out every ten years to find out how many people live in different areas. It also covers basic statistics about people, such as their age, religion, occupation, family size etc. The information is used to help determine how resources should be distributed to regional and local authorities.

Child Worker search for term

A worker who is under the legally permitted age to work full-time. The legally permitted age for full-time work is the school leaving age, though younger children are allowed to work part-time hours.

Civil Partnership search for term

An agreement that gives couples of the same sex the same rights and responsibilities as married men and women. Couples hold a ceremony similar to a marriage ceremony.

Civil Service search for term

A non-elected branch of government that employs people to carry out the government’s work and policies. It does not include elected politicians, members of the House of Lords, judges or the military.

Civil War search for term

An armed conflict between citizens of the same country.

Collective Bargaining search for term

The right of a trade union to represent its members in negotiations with an employer over the workers’ pay and conditions, rather than individual workers coming to separate agreements with the employer.

Colonial Administration search for term

The system of officials that governed the countries where Britain or other European powers had colonies.

Colonialism search for term

A system whereby a state acquires political control (sovereignty) over a territory and people outside its boundaries and exercises political and economic domination over it through settlement of its population in the colony or indirect means of control over the colony.

Colour Bar search for term

This was a term used in the USA and in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s, referring to legal or social discrimination because of someone’s race, such as a refusal to employ black or Asian workers.

Conscription search for term

A law making it compulsory for most men between certain ages to join the armed forces. In Britain, this was introduced in 1916 during the First World War and again in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War. From 1941, women could also be called up, although they were not required to fight. After the war, conscription became peacetime ‘National Service’, which was compulsory for an 18-month to 2-year period for men aged between 17 and 21, until it was abolished in 1960.

Consumer Activism search for term

Activities that consumers use to demand change from a company they target, such as safer products or more ethical production. These activities can include boycotting the company’s product or brand until it promises to improve working conditions, or organising demonstrations outside its retail stores.

Court Martial search for term

A court held by the armed forces. It judges soldiers according to the rules of the armed forces rather than following the judicial procedures and laws which govern the civilian population.